Insulin management, in truth, deserves a whole chapter of a textbook, but here are a few quick-and-dirty methods I’ve learned for type 2 diabetics in the hospital:
Selecting a type of insulin:
- I often try to use lantus over NPH if I have a choice, because lantus is longer-acting and doesn’t have a peak-decrease response
- I also avoid 70/30 mixed insulin unless a patient uses that at home because 70/30 is more prone to giving people labile blood sugars
- Short acting insulins, like aspart (lispro) and humalog (humulin) I think of as more interchangeable
(length of time before
insulin reaches bloodstream)
(time period when
insulin is most effective)
(how long insulin
|10 – 30 minutes||30 minutes – 3 hours||3 – 5 hours|
|Short-acting||Regular (R)||30 minutes – 1 hour||2 – 5 hours||Up to 12 hours|
|NPH (N)||1.5 – 4 hours||4 – 12 hours||Up to 24 hours|
|0.8 – 4 hours||Minimal peak||Up to 24 hours|
(Table credit: The Joslin Center)
Calculating an initial dose of long acting (basal) insulin: Body weight (kg) x 0.2 if insulin naive; and x 0.5 if already on insulin.
Calculating the appropriate sliding scale instead of using your hospital’s predetermined one: 5% of total daily insulin requirement. For example, someone who requires 20 units of basal insulin should start with a sliding scale of 1 unit when glucose 150-200, 3 units when 201-249, etc.
Adjusting insulin on a daily basis: Add up the sliding scale units they received over the last 24 hours. Assign 50% to long-acting insulin and 50% to mealtime insulin. So, if someone is getting 10 units long-acting insulin and 2 units mealtime, and required an extra 12 units yesterday, they should now get 13 units long-acting insulin and 4 units at each mealtime.