Types of inhalers:
- Respimat SMI (soft mist inhaler)
- MDI (metered dose inhaler) +/- spacer
- DPI (dry powder inhaler)
Types of inhalers:
First question: will giving normal saline even help? Normal saline has an osmolality of 308 mEq (Na+Cl). In hypovolemic and some cases of euvolemic hyponatremia, it can help raise Na appropriately. If the urine osmolality is too high, giving normal saline will actually worsen hyponatremia because it will be like giving a more dilute fluid.
Example: You have a man with suspected SIADH (he’s a smoker and has a new diagnosis of lung cancer). His Na is 120. His serum osm is 265 and his urine osm is 320. Your total free water loss is -37.5 mL, which is to say, if you give him 1 L NS, you will make zero difference.
Let’s say the same man has a urine osm of 100. Your total free water loss is +2.08 L. If you give him 1 L NS, you will dramatically increase his Na.
Let’s say the same man has a urine osm of 600. Now your total free water loss is -486 mL, which means if you give him 1 L NS, you will actually cause him to gain free water and worsen his Na.
This chart is also very helpful for understanding how fluids are selected in common scenarios.
Second question: How much normal saline should I give? The equation below is extrapolated from a calculation for how much hypertonic saline to give (see this post):
You have a patient with hyponatremia and you’ve determined that salt tabs and normal saline just won’t do, they need some 3% hypertonic saline. Great! You go to write the order…how many cc’s should they get? At what rate? Is there a better way of calculating it rather than just saying, give 50 cc x1 and hope for the best?
As it turns out, giving 50 cc boluses and checking Na every 2 hours is an accepted form of empiric treatment. But if that makes you uneasy, there is a more mathematical solution. (Reference)
Example: a 60 kg woman with an Na of 108. Your goal is to increase her Na by 4 mmol over the next 4 hours.
So far, your answer should be: the predicted change in Na will be 13.06 for every 1 L 3% NS. Therefore, to increase Na from 108 to 112 over four hours:
=0.294 L or 294 mL. However, because you want to run this over 4 hours, 294/4=73.5 mL/hour. And that’s your hypertonic saline infusion rate!
Remember your Na correction goals:
This post is about perioperative stress dose steroids, for adult patients, only.
Who is at risk for perioperative adrenal insufficiency? The goal of stress dose steroids is to prevent hypotension and adrenal crisis/shock. The Society of Hospital Medicine (in one of their great learning modules), states:
What kind of steroid should be used? IV hydrocortisone is the most physiologic (+mineralocorticoid effect) and should be used until the patient can be transitioned back to prednisone/oral steroids. This letter makes an argument for dexamethasone that is interesting–I myself have never seen dexamethasone used for this indication, though.
Does the kind of surgery affect whether someone should get stress dose steroids? Yes.
How the heck do I taper stress dose steroids? Stress dose steroid tapers, like ALL steroid tapers, are made up. We as a medical community prescribe tapers based on what “sounds reasonable.” What is usually reasonable is something along the lines of:
Some people would advocate going straight from IV hydrocortisone back to the home dose, which is fine if the patient looks clinically well. Patients at higher risk of complications from steroids (hyperglycemia, fluid retention, agitation) should be tapered more quickly and patients at higher risk of adrenal insufficiency should be tapered more slowly.
The situation: a young woman with opiate use disorder comes into the hospital with a broken arm after a car accident. She tells you she has been been buying methadone off the street and taking 60 mg a day. How do you manage this patient’s pain regimen and what can you do to prevent opiate withdrawal?
Methadone is typically used for maintenance therapy for opiate use disorder (OUD) or chronic pain. If it is for OUD, they must receive their doses from a methadone clinic. You should always try to call the clinic to verify the correct dose. In this patient’s case, she was buying methadone on her own. Therefore, the first step is to do a urine tox test–if the patient has been using methadone in the past week, it should be positive. If she is negative, it is not a good idea to start methadone unless she’s having withdrawal symptoms.
A patient’s home methadone dose does not provide acute pain control. Patients undergoing surgery can continue their methadone perioperatively. A patient who comes in on methadone (or suboxone, for that matter) needs the same kind of pain management as everyone else. For the patient above with the broken arm, you should still start Tylenol, NSAIDs if possible, and opiates like oxycodone or dilaudid for severe breakthrough pain.
Methadone is effective for preventing withdrawal symptoms in the inpatient setting. This Cochrane review shows that compared to placebo, tapered doses of methadone helped prevent withdrawal symptoms. There is no universal methadone tapered dose protocol. This American Pain Society sheet states methadone can be safely and rapidly tapered in 7-14 days. This pamphlet created by Pain Topics (and written by a Univ. Iowa pharmacist) has helpful information on short and long tapers. In general, you want to get the patient to reduce their dose by at most 25% every few days, end on a dose of 10 mg daily, and then stop completely.
For management of symptoms like sweats, muscle cramps, and nausea, check out this sister post.
A speaking valve, commonly called a Passy Muir valve, is a cap that can be put over the trach cannula to allow patients to vocalize more.
Patients often have to practice wearing the Passy Muir valve, and may be more fatigued or have more coughing at first.
The Passy Muir website has a practical and interesting troubleshooting page. Of course, take the company website with a grain of salt, but I did find it helpful overall for understanding the applications and patient perspective better.
Are there contraindications to using a speaking valve?
Yes. Patients with an an inflated cuff, fome cuff trach, history of laryngeal masses, stenosis, total laryngectomy, or thick copious secretions should hold off on a speaking valve.
|Cuffed trach||Uncuffed trach||Fenestrated trach (comes with a cuff)|
|Indication||Patients on a closed ventilator (cuff prevents airleak)||Patients who are more stable, getting closer to decannulation||Patients on a ventilator who aren’t ready for a speaking valve. Has a cuff but is more “in-between”|
|Compatible with speaking valve?||
Yes—must deflate the cuff first
Yes, speaking valve may not be necessary
No—if cuff is deflated can speak using vocal cords or a trach plug
|Advantages||Provides the most secure airway||Is easier for the patient to tolerate||Allows air to pass more “normally” through nose and mouth|
|Things to look out for||Pressure necrosis
|Cuffless or deflated cuffs are more prone to silent aspiration||Many fit poorly, leading to granuloma formation and infection|
|Random things to know||Cuff pressures are ideally checked twice a day: 20-30 mmHg generally good||The decannulation plug is used when patients get decannulated, so hold on it it||Patients can still wear a nasal cannula if the trach is plugged|
The table above was made using this Hopkins page as a reference.
This guide from OHSU is seriously fantastic. (Except at the beginning I think they switched the labels for pilot line and cuff.) I am shamelessly borrowing their pictures.